Most of the province's interior is covered by the southern third of the Great Eastern Desert, and is thus sparsely populated. There is little agriculture within the province; instead, the natural resource industry is a major industry: Nava's only oil field is located in the southwest of the province near Sackerton, and there are also ore mines located further east. There is also advanced technological industry in Novatura.
As with the other east coast provinces, a significant fraction of Southeast Cape Province's population (especially in Novatura and on the eastern shore) is of Arab descent, and there is significant Islamic culture. Also like the other east coast provinces, it is politically progressive-leaning, but has more complex politics than western Nava due to the prominence of the Muslim Party.
Southeast Cape Province has existed since 1958; before that, the region was governed as a territory of Nava from 1845 to 1930 and was then the southern third of the Eastern Province until its split in 1958.